Article 2 of the Declaration of Human Rights
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
- Article 3 of the Declaration of Human Rights:
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
- Article 6(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966
1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
- Article 6(5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966
5. Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.
- Article II of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1948:
In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
- Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons 1975:
2. Disabled persons shall enjoy all the rights set forth in this Declaration. These rights shall be granted to all disabled persons without any exception whatsoever and without distinction or discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, state of wealth, birth or any other situation applying either to the disabled person himself or herself or to his or her family.
3. Disabled persons have the inherent right to respect for their human dignity. Disabled persons, whatever the origin, nature and seriousness of their handicaps and disabilities, have the same fundamental rights as their fellow-citizens of the same age, which implies first and foremost the right to enjoy a decent life, as normal and full as possible.
4. Disabled persons have the same civil and political rights as other human beings; paragraph 7 of the Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons applies to any possible limitation or suppression of those rights for mentally disabled persons.
- U.N. Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959) and Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990)
"The child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth."
The United States is a signatory without reservation on the "legal protection before birth" clause.
- American Convention on Human Rights (1978)
"Every person has the right to have his life respected. This right shall be protected by law and, in general, from the moment of conception."
The United states is a signatory without reservation on the "moment of conception" clause. Its articles are enforceable through the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
- European Commission of Human Rights (1981), Application No. 6959/75
"Pregnancy cannot be said to pertain uniquely to the sphere of private life. Whenever a woman is pregnant her private life becomes closely connected with the developing fetus."
Article 8 (1) of the Convention could not therefore be interpreted as meaning that pregnancy and its termination were, in principle, solely a matter of the private life of the mother.